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Agone National Lab: EVs vs. Conventional Vehicles Webinar

 Argonne’s Science at Work webinar comparing EVs with conventional vehicles

 

For more details, check out the following materials:

 

Argonne National Laboratory

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Answers to questions asked during the webinar

  1. What type of crude oil is used for the comparison? Different crude oils have different refining needs.
    • Answer: Indeed, oil source matters since it can affect API gravity, sulfur content, transportation distances (and transit method), etc. The GREET model considers crude from multiple global sources including the United States, Canada (oil sands and conventional), Mexico, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. We also account for a portion of ethanol within the fuel consistent with U.S. average conditions.
  1. How many miles are you assuming in your life cycle emissions?
    • Answer: Lifetime miles are based on average vehicle driving distance by vintage and survivability from the VISION model. For midsize cars in the U.S., this is 173,151 lifetime miles. Note that mileage serves to amortize the vehicle production burdens but does not impact the Fuel Cycle.
  1. I assume Natural Gas in this chart is just fossil. It does not include Renewable Natural Gas.
    • Answer: Yes, the chart only shows average natural gas in the U.S. We could also provide RNG.
  1. For electricity production, are the GHG emissions just associated at the power plant?
    • Answer: No, this is life cycle, thus it includes all aspects of fuel production and consumption. So, for this, and for every other fuel or material, this goes all the way back to extraction from earth and includes all processes used to provide a usable form of the fuel/material.
  1. Does this model also work for MD and HD commercial vehicles?
    • Answer: Yes, GREET also has well-to-wheel (WTW) results for many diverse MHDV, and further has the vehicle cycle for Class 6 Pickup and Delivery, and Class 8 Sleeper- and Day-cab MDHV, thus we have cradle-to-grave results for those 3 classes (multiple powertrains).
  1. Can you provide a similar analysis for resource depletion and mining waste during manufacturing, comparing BEVs to ICEVs?
    • Answer: GREET does not currently have resource depletion analyses.
  1. Can you comment on resource depletion and the effect of battery recycling?
    • Answer: GREET does not currently have resource depletion analyses. But the effect of battery recycling would be to reduce the rate at which resources are depleted.
  1. I’d be interested in seeing a GREET comparison with a conventional vehicle getting 50 mpg.
    • Answer: My back-of-the-envelope analysis indicates that improving the gasoline vehicle from 31 to 50 MPGGE (Miles per Gallon of Gasoline Equivalent) would reduce the life cycle GHG emissions to 275 g CO2e/mile (Grams CO2 Equivalent per Mile).
  1. How would a Hybrid compare with an EV?
    • Answer: A comparable hybrid would achieve ~46 MPGGE, so it would be slightly worse than the 50 MPGGE results noted above, but it would also have a battery, motor, generator, and electronic controller, which would add slightly to the vehicle cycle, but not nearly as much as the battery for the EV.
  1. Can you provide a similar analysis for all air-pollution (not just GHG, but including PM2.5, NOX, SOX, etc.)
    • Answer: We have such capabilities with the GREET model.
  1. I’d love to see a future seminar when the comparison is a Full Hybrid, PHEV and EV. I think everyone accepts the results for conventional ICE.
  1. Looking at the EV split on the last slide, I didn’t see any upstream emissions. Does this model also include the GHG emissions for production and maintenance of the different types of facilities and the overall life expectancy?
    • Answer: I believe the question is mistaken, the EVs only have upstream, but no tailpipe emissions. From the frame of the vehicle, all electricity emissions are upstream. We account for all emissions associated with fuel production and energy generation. We do not, in our baseline configuration, account for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure as this is amortized over a very large quantity of delivered product (electricity in this case) and is thus very small.
  1. How would this comparison look for an HEV or PHEV?
  1. How much energy is consumed recycling batteries?
    • Answer: That can be considered using Argonne’s EverBatt model. Within this analysis we use a conservative approach and assume that no recycling credits are provided for recycled batteries. https://www.anl.gov/egs/everbatt
  1. What does the landscape for recycling discharged EV vehicles look like?
    • Answer: This is outside the scope of this presentation, but Argonne’s ReCell Center (https://recellcenter.org/) is actively looking at advanced EV battery recycling approaches.
  1. How hard is it to swap the batteries in EVs?
    • Answer: This is beyond the scope of my analyses. But it has not yet been profitably achieved on a broad scale for EVs. This is more of a vehicle design issue coupled with a planning and logistics challenge than an LCA issue.
  1. How do you model environment impact of the increased competition for rare minerals with demand increasing and quality of ore decreasing?
    • Answer: For the GREET model, we use the best available public data to determine the energy and material input needs of all materials, this is typically static or retrospective in nature. However, as noted, increased demand for materials will place a pressure on global ores with the likely effect of lower ores grades. Such dynamic elements are not included for materials within GREET at present. The general observation, however, is that as ore grade decreases the amount of energy required per tonne of final material should increase (all other conditions being equal).

 

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US DOT Issues Guidance for State DOTS to Implement the National EV Formula Program

Originally posted via Joint Office of Energy and Transportation 

NEWS ALERT: US DOT ISSUES GUIDANCE FOR STATE DOTS TO IMPLEMENT THE NATIONAL EV FORMULA PROGRAM

DOT Issues Guidance for States

Feb. 10, 2022

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) released guidance for state departments of transportation related to implementation of the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Formula Program. The NEVI Formula Program will provide dedicated funding to states to strategically deploy EV charging infrastructure and establish an interconnected network to facilitate data collection, access, and reliability.

 

DOT also published the Request for Nominations for the 6th round of alternative fuel corridor designations.

 

View the complete announcement here. 

 


 

Memorandum of Understanding Creates Joint Office

Dec. 14, 2021

U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm and U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg signed a memorandum of understanding to create the Joint Office of Energy and Transportation to support the deployment of $7.5 billion from President Biden’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to build out a national electric vehicle charging network that can build public confidence, with a focus on filling gaps in rural, disadvantaged, and hard-to-reach locations.

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Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure

Originally published through U.S. Department of Transportation

President Biden, U.S. Department of Transportation Releases Toolkit to Help Rural Communities Build Out Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Wednesday, February 2, 2022

Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to Provide $7.5 Billion for EV Charging Network Across America 

WASHINGTON – The U.S. Department of Transportation today released a new, free resource to help rural communities across the country take full advantage of federal funding for electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. The guide, titled Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure, can help connect community members, towns, businesses, planning agencies, and others with partners needed for these projects. President Biden’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law includes a total of $7.5 billion to build out a nationwide network of 500,000 electric vehicle chargers.

The toolkit contains best practices for planning EV charging networks and tips to navigate federal funding and financing to help make these projects a reality. DOT will also be holding workshops with rural communities to utilize the toolkit most effectively.

This toolkit is being released in anticipation of the distribution of $7 billion in funds to accelerate the deployment of a national electric vehicle charging network from the President’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. Of these funds, $4.75 billion will be distributed by formula to states, and an additional $2.5 billion will be distributed through a competitive grant program that will support innovative approaches and ensure that charger deployment meets Administration priorities such as supporting rural charging, improving local air quality and increasing EV charging access in disadvantaged communities. Together, this is the largest-ever U.S. investment in EV charging and will be a transformative down payment on the transition to a zero-emission future.

“Drivers in rural areas often have the longest commutes and spend the most money on gas, which means big benefits from having access to electric cars and pickup trucks if they are affordable and easy to charge where they live and drive,” said Secretary Pete Buttigieg. “The investments in the President’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law for a national EV charging network are an important step toward ensuring that EVs aren’t a luxury item and that everyone in America can benefit from clean transportation.”

The Department of Transportation, along with the Department of Energy and the White House are conducting outreach and providing resources including this new toolkit to help ensure all Americans, including those in rural, disadvantaged, and hard-to-reach locations, benefit from EV technology.

This toolkit follows other examples of recent progress towards expansion of EV infrastructure including a memorandum of understanding signed by Secretary Buttigieg and U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm, which sets the stage for the two agencies to collaborate on implementation of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law’s electric vehicle provisions.

Further, today’s announcement follows progress on the Biden-Harris Administration delivering the benefits of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to rural communities. Last week, DOT announced more than $1.2 billion for the Appalachian Development Highway System. Yesterday, the Department of Interior announced $1.15 billion to help 26 states cap and remediate orphan oil and gas wells that will help many rural areas.  Last month, DOT also announced a historic investment in bridges, including off system bridges that greatly benefit rural communities

The toolkit was developed as part of the Rural Opportunities to Use Transportation for Economic Success (ROUTES) Initiative at USDOT, which coordinates rural infrastructure policy at the Department. The ROUTES Initiative was first created in 2019 and codified in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law.  ROUTES provides technical assistance and easy-to-access resources for rural transportation stakeholders, including this toolkit. More information on the ROUTES Initiative can be found at www.transportation.gov/rural.

The Department will also host a webinar to present the toolkit in more detail on February 9 at 1:30 PM ET. The webinar is free to attend, register here.

Over the coming weeks and months, USDOT will hold additional workshops with rural communities and stakeholders to obtain feedback on the toolkit and provide information to help rural communities get started with electric vehicle charging projects. An updated toolkit will be available this summer that incorporates feedback from these workshops, expanded information on new programs, and new information on topics such as transit and school bus electrification.

Updates on the revised toolkit and other rural EV resources will be provided at www.transportation.gov/rural/ev.

The toolkit is available here: www.transportation.gov/rural/ev/toolkit

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Sandy City Launches Sustainable Sandy Initiative; Unveils New EV Chargers

Learn more about the rollout of EV chargers throughout Sandy City!